There was nothing more irritating to the middle-school version of me than collective punishment of a class. It was totally unfair, from the perspective of a well-behaved individual, for the teacher to punish the entire class because of the few who misbehaved and seemed a gross injustice.
However, from a teacher’s perspective, punishing classes as a collective whole was 1) easier than finding the individual culprits and 2) might convince students to police themselves. And, while it is debatable whether or not this technique accomplishes the desired ends, it is something used in military training and for the purpose of teaching that the collective unit will rise and fall together in a combat situation.
We thrive in groups. There is a reason why you buy your car from a manufacturer rather than build it yourself and that reason is they can do it more efficiently than you can. It is something called “comparative advantage” (which basically means that some people are better at doing some tasks than we are) and is one of the reasons why trade is almost always mutually beneficial. For the most ideal result (for both individuals and the collective) it is usually better that we specialize and cooperate.
In real-life we do depend on each other for survival. Yes, you might be strong, independent, well-disciplined and as prepared as one can be for a crisis. However, if your neighbors are not, when a crisis does arise it will likely be you against the group and you will probably lose that fight no matter how prepared you are. And, at very least, even if you were to somehow escape, you would not thrive as an individual like you do in a developed economy where there is cooperation and trade.
So, whether we like it or not, regardless if it is just or not to introduce artificial group responsibility for the actions of others, even if there was no moral obligation to be our brother’s keeper, there is group accountability that arises naturally because of our interdependence and also an economic argument to make for some collective effort (or collectivism) and denial of the individual. In other words, we are individually better when we take some concern for other individuals who make up our own collective group.
Where Collectivism Goes Wrong…
In the first part of my life most of my effort has been to fight back against collectivism. In life, as in the classroom, I was usually well-behaved, worked hard, lived within my means, always paid my own bills on time, and expected others to do the same. It has always seemed terribly unfair that others would expect me to pick up the tab for their irresponsible lifestyle.
What is worse is that many collectivists are not content to subsidize those who they deem to be deserving of help out of their own pockets and instead support the use of use of government to enforce their ideals—taxes are used for income redistribution and affirmative action laws created in an effort to promote equality of outcomes. To me that is trying to solve one injustice by means of another injustice. There is no virtue in forcing other people to give to others against their will.
Furthermore, at some point, forcing a responsible person to subsidize another person’s lifestyle is to punish their behavior and promote irresponsible behavior. The problem with artificial collective responsibility is that it can remove the incentive for the individual to be responsible for themselves and leads to a downward spiral.
For example, poverty has not been eliminated since the “war on poverty” began in 1964. In fact, the percentage of single parent homes—one of the significant predictors of poverty—has increased dramatically over the same period. It is often very difficult, for those already in the welfare system, to escape their dependence when the benefits of not working are almost equal to the income they could earn otherwise.
And then there is this awful thing called “identity politics” where people are put into competitive groups according to their race, gender or economic status and then pitted against each other. Basically the idea is to promote conflict (rather than cooperation) between various identity groups. People, according to this kind of thinking, should be judged as a part of their collective groups rather than as individuals and unique.
What identity politics amounts to, in practical terms, is that there are those who are collectively punished for the sins of their collective identity (past or present) and then those who, as a collective group, are deemed to be victims and therefore entitled to a protected status. Identity politics is to blame for terms like “white privilege” and also for the resurgence of white nationalism. It should be no surprise to anyone that those who are collectively punished will, in turn, circle the wagons and start to collectively protect their own identity group.
Teachers who punish the whole class for the actions of a few individuals assume that the group will push back against those who misbehave. Unfortunately, it could also promote the opposite and cause the well-behaved students to give up and even join in the misbehavior because they will be punished regardless. Likewise, when labels like “racist” or “sexist” are applied to an entire identity group they often become counterproductive. People who are categorizing and castigated as a group regardless of their individual role might as well misbehave a little.
Collectivism ultimately fails when it is disrespectful of individual rights and disregarding of differences between individuals. The potential for abuse is severe when it is the collective group versus some individuals or even when collective groups fights against other groups. It is what leads to pogroms and purges. Collectivism is extremely dangerous ideology when it becomes an excuse to privilege some ethnic, national, racial, religious, social or political groups at the expense of others.
Where Individualism Goes Wrong…
Individualism, to many people, seems like the perfect alternative to collectivism. It is part of the ideological DNA of the United States of America. Truly one of the things that made America great was the special consideration for the individual and their “inalienable” rights.
These rights, purportedly “endowed by our creator” according the nation’s founding documents, have been enshrined into law and a government system designed as a bulwark against abuse of individuals. Progress, at least in American terms, has been a matter of extending the umbrella of these individual rights to those previously disenfranchised and considered less than equal because of their gender, racial or ethnic group. While we can never agree on the particulars, the general idea that “all men are created equal” and have rights to “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” is something most do agree on.
Respect for individual rights has made this nation great because it freed individuals to do what they wanted to do. Yes, the nation was imperfect in it’s founding and remains imperfect. However, the American ideal seems to be right in many regards, it is something that likely contributed to the current prosperity this nation and is something that has likely helped to shape a better world. It is hard to imagine the world being better under the totalitarianism represented by men like Stalin, Hitler and other dictators claiming to represent a collective good.
Unfortunately, respect for the individual turns into a bad thing when it becomes individualism. It is true that many are able to provide food, clothing and shelter for themselves as an individual. However, nobody can provide for their own social needs and many in the world today are socially starved. The problem is particularly acute in the developed world where people are materially prosperous and can live under a delusion of their independence. But the truth is that it is not healthy for most people to be free from meaningful human connections or to have no purpose bigger than themselves.
The deficiencies of individualistic American culture have became clearer to me after I left home. Being single, out on the road, a completely free individual, often made me feel profoundly lonely and unfulfilled. I felt imprisoned in my own mind. My siblings had their own lives, my friends all seemed to marry then disappear, the local church was unable/unwilling to pick up the slack, and depression set in. No man is an island—positive social interactions and having a place to belong is what keeps us sane.
My recent trip to the Philippines punctuated this point. The people there generally have less material wealth than their American counterparts. As a result people depend on each other—family members expected to provide for each other, children help their parents, and is more or less an organic form of collectivism. I felt happier there, as one participating in family activities, than I did with all the possessions and properties I’ve aquired over the past few decades.
As if to provide contrast, on my way way back from the Philippines I was put up in a Marriott (when my flight to JFK was diverted to Atlanta because of weather) and was basically alone despite being one of the hundred passengers and crew in the motel. My accommodations were luxurious, my stomach full of quality grub courtesy of Korean Air food vouchers, my unlimited data plan connected me back to social media and all the entertainment in the world, and still it felt like a time devoid of purpose.
People do not need to be a part of an identity group. However, we do seem to find our own identity in our interactions with other people and within a group. Solitude, while therapeutic and a chance for reflection as a choice, is a punishment when imposed upon us by circumstances beyond our control. Individualism, at an extreme, results in solipsism and anti-social behavior—it is easy to imagine that the world is against you when too disconnected from other people.
Where Community Gets it Right…
“Community is a sign that love is possible in a materialistic world where people so often either ignore or fight each other. It is a sign that we don’t need a lot of money to be happy–in fact, the opposite.” (Jean Vanier)
Community can mean many things. However, the word itself is a fusion of “common” with “unity” and most often describes a group individuals with a shared identity or interest. In this context community is a collection of individuals who love and take an active role in each other’s lives.
I believe community is something that transcends the ideological extremes (and false dichotomy) of individualism and collectivism. It is not a balance or tension between individual rights and the collective needs of a group. It is rather a fusion of individual and collective concerns that is not a product of coercion or imposed as a legal obligation. It is a place where differences become a strength rather than a point of contention and were grievances are addressed without becoming the group’s central theme.
A healthy community is focused on the highest common denominator of the group rather than on the lowest. In other words, the goals of the individuals in the group are bigger than what is merely good for them or those who are most like them. Those who make up the group are not forced to give up their personal autonomy to tyrannical collective process either. Instead they are free to voluntarily use their individual strengths to the betterment of the group, willing to work towards the goal they share in common with the group, and without their personal needs being neglected.
Community is a Christian ideal. It is centered on sharing an identity with Jesus and is following after his example. It means being willing to suffer temporary personal loss for the external good of others. It means loving social outcasts, reaching out to those marginalized in society and being a helping hand to those in need. It means having an identity (both individually and collectively) greater than race, gender, economic status, nation, or religious affiliation. It means a community formed by all those (past, present and future) united in a mystical common-union:
“Here there is no Gentile or Jew, circumcised or uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free, but Christ is all, and is in all. Therefore, as God’s chosen people, holy and dearly loved, clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience. Bear with each other and forgive one another if any of you has a grievance against someone. Forgive as the Lord forgave you. And over all these virtues put on love, which binds them all together in perfect unity. “ (Colossians 3:11-14 NIV)
Community is where individuals take responsibility for the collective group and the collective group takes responsibility for the individual. Not because they have to, not because they fear punishment, but because they want to, they have an identity bigger than themselves and love each other as Jesus first loved them.